Use a Rank two heading for Abstract. An abstract in English, limited to 200-300 words in a single paragraph, all boldface, is required in all cases. Indent the first line of the abstract (1 cm). The abstract should contain a concise but comprehensive statement of the problem and results. [Note: blue shading style will be applied by ISHS Secretariat staff during technical editing prior to publication]
The title and abstract will be freely available on the ISHS website and should be considered an advertisement for the paper as it may be all that most viewers will read. Thus, it should be carefully and accurately written.
This is a Rank two heading followed by colon in boldface (Keywords: apple, pear). List five to seven key words not used in the title. Remember that electronic search engines focus on Title and Keywords. The second line of keywords is a hanging indent (2 cm).